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  •   Solar PV Modules 


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  • Solar PV Modules 



    Solar PV Modules are made from a set of photovoltaic cells connected series and parallel. Under the sun, a photovoltaic cell acts as a photosensitive diode and converts light (not heat) into electricity. That it means how long the intensity of light (called irradiation) remains in a specific range we will generate a direct current. The current flows into a single direction between the front of the cell exposed to the light to the back of the cell where the electrical connections of that cell are made. The light acts as a natural type of switch setting the current on or off. The heat it is acting as an effective deterrent - too much heat and the amount of the electrical current generated start to be limited and to decline in value. The way we connect the photovoltaic cells in series and parallel will determine the total amount of current and respective the output voltage of that panel. They are correlated to panel efficiency, that factor will tell us how much from the total panel electric capacity output will be in use.

     Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline,

    We need more as a single panel to start generate a significant amount of electrical energy. As a rule of thumb, we look for daily average electricity usage and the average number of sunny hours per day to find the system size (in watts/kw) needed to offset the average dwelling consumption. For our customers we offer both monocrystalline (or mono) and polycrystalline (or poly) solar panels. The choice is based on quality, efficiency, space constrains and in some case colors. Mono are thought to be premium pv panels, they do offer a better efficiency and therefore can be used in projects with space constrains. They come with a higher price compared to poly panels, but they are slicker and bring a low profile when placed on rooftops. The poly ones are cheaper, with lower efficiency, they will need more real estate as the mono panels. The color in case we do not use color pigments in manufacturing, are black hue for mono and blue hue for poly.

    Solar Panels Explosion

     Half-cut solar cell and PERC,

    One of the most thorny issue is the efficiency of the solar panels. Conventional silicon cells have an absolute theoretical maximum efficiency of 29.1 percent conversion of solar energy. To improve the efficiency, scientists at MIT and elsewhere have unlock solutions based on new technologies. One of them is splitting the energy of one photon into two electrons which lies in a class of materials that possess “excited states” called excitons, To obtain that, solar cells are implementing a very thin layer, few atoms thick, which help with dividing the cell in half and they double the amount of energy produced by a conventional solar cell. The efficiency can reach a max of 35 percent.  The technology is called half-cut solar cell technology, and together with 5BB or  or 6BB (bus-bars) internal electric architecture, they are reducing the internal resistance losses and are bringing more to the cell efficiency. Another new technology in solar cells is PERC, which stands for Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell or Passivated Emitter and Rear Contact. This technology is aimed to achieve higher energy conversion efficiency by adding a dielectric passivation layer, on the rear of the cell. It is combined with a 5BB or 6BB internal electric architecture to enhance the general result.

    Solar Panels Explosion

     LID and PID degradation factors,

    Another thorny issue with PV panels is inaccurate energy forecast caused by Potential Induced Degradation (PID) and Light Induced Degradation (LID) mismatch. Light Induced Degradation (LID) is done by PV modules with a natural degradation due to physical reactions (electrons flow) through the p-n junctions of a PV module. They induce a power degradation to the PV cell respective to the solar panels by a loss of 3% or more from the nameplate power generated, and in this way it lowers the overall panel efficiency.

    The second form of degradation PID is caused by voltages as high as 1000 V and above, together with high temperatures and humidity. Furthermore, the accumulation of dirt and the degradation of glass can catalyze the process owing to the release of sodium ions. Modules that have experienced such degradation generally contain some black cells that are non-functional and found near the frame. This occurs due to a large flow of electrons through such cells, and due to the differential in voltage across the pane.  Solid PID (Potential Induced Degradation) conducted by high voltages resistance ensured by solar cell process optimization and careful module BOM selection, are mitigating the PV-cell respective PV-Panel degradation.

    The issues presented in this expose are considered by us, the distributor, as a set of important factors which are playing into PV panels selection, and finally they do reflect into the quality of the panels we offer!

     [Tech Support]  Knowledge Base Information for:   Solar PV Panels  
    Read from Knowledge Base and download a pdf file @  Article:   101 RENEWABLE - PV SOLAR PANELS ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION 
    Fold | Unfold [ click ]  Read more...  

    rooftop system

    When it comes to residential or commercial installations most of the solar panels are mounted on top of the rooftops. Using Roof - Top systems is the most convenient to integrate residential or commercial PV plants. They do offer additional security features based on their elevated position which make them out of easy reach. Rooftop systems do not need additional land for the PV plant and in this way, the start-up costs are kept considerable low.

    Where roofs are unavailable, Ground-mounted solar panels systems are a viable alternative. Modules are mounted on racks and anchored to the ground. As a startup investment, it is more expensive and securing the perimeter for the installation adds to the total cost. Real estate comes at a substantial expense to the total investment costs.



     Shelters Canopies,

    are utility type of PV plants. They do energize roofs acting as a power source for all the utilities they host under that structure. Are most seen as Solar Car Ports and they tend to become a common presence. Their main role is to provide EV's and Hybrid cars with charging power.

     Utility Scale Systems,

    are ground mounted or are using available space on industrial buildings rooftops. Their output is in MW range. They are complex in maintenance and most of the time is necessary to be equipped with real-time monitoring. Cleaning becomes a real issue and adds to the maintenance costs.

     Trackers,

    are a solution brought in mainly to increase the output power by moving the solar panels to follow the sun’s path and get more pick ours per day. At the sunset, they will be parked ready to be used at sunrise.

    Solar panels generally last over 20 years, and they require little to no maintenance. Most of the solar panels have 20 years linear warranty. Very common for solar panel warranty is to state that the panels will produce at least 80% of their rated power after 20 years in service.

    Solar panels are mainly classified as monocrystalline, polycrystalline or amorphous. Polycrystalline or amorphous are one and the same. The main constraint in residential solar panel installation is the roof space. If space is not an issue, then a polycrystalline (amorphous) panel is a great option. Polycrystalline (amorphous) solar panels perform better than crystalline solar panels in very hot temperatures and are more tolerant to the partial shading.

    The information posted herein has been compiled by Clean Energy Brands from OEM product data and reputable publications. All rights reserved!



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